The Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections (ADJC), in partnership with LeCroy Milligan and Associates has developed a tool called the Recidivism Risk Instrument (RRI) to assess a juvenile’s risk to re-offend. The RRI is calculated from juvenile characteristics resident within the Criminogenic and Protective Factors Assessment (CAPFA) and offense records. The CAPFA is used for all juveniles committed to the ADJC, and consists of 12 domains and over 180 measures.
Research has found that females become involved in delinquency for different reasons than males and the RRI acknowledges those differences. While the RRI has different statistical models for females and males, there is some slight overlap between the two. Firearm usage, for example, was found to be predictive of both female and male recidivism and was included in both models.
The RRI was validated in 2012, using a cohort of juveniles released from ADJC. Females in that cohort had a 28% recidivism rate and eleven percent of them were deemed high risk. The high risk females had a 56% recidivism rate. Half of the females were found to be moderate-high risk to recidivate and they had a 39% recidivism rate. More than a third (39%) were categorized low-moderate risk to recidivate and they had a 6% recidivism rate. Slightly less than a third (32%) of the males in the release cohort used to create the RRI recidivated within one year. Eleven percent of the males were deemed high risk and they had a 54% recidivism rate. Almost two-thirds (63%) were deemed moderate-high risk and they had a 37% recidivism rate. One quarter of the males were deemed low-moderate risk to recidivate and their recidivism rate was 10%.
The RRI is easy to calculate. It does not require the collection of additional data because the risk score is computer-generated from measures resident within CAPFA.